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Author Guidelines

Documents: format and submission

  • Authors can submit a max 60,000-characters long academic essay in an anonymous .doc, .docx, .rtf or .odt file format. It is highly recommended to include a PDF version of the same essay to check for glyph glitches and typos. We recommend using Palatino font.
  • Any images, which will be reproduced in plates outside the text, must be delivered separately, in a photographic print, slide or digital format. The author will indicate the point in the text where they should be placed. All illustrative material will be progressively numbered and supplied with corresponding captions, with indications on the back of any parts which should not be reproduced. Images should be digitalized in TIFF format at a minimum resolution of 300 dpi. Authors must provide permission to publish the photos and manuscripts.
  • Authors will be sent only one draft to re-read, which must be corrected and sent back in the times indicated by the editors. Authors should limit themselves to correcting typos, material errors, missing words, inconsistency or lack of uniformity with typographical criteria. Bibliographic integration or rectifications will only be admitted when strictly necessary; any additions or modifications must be agreed upon with the editors.



Citations of a certain length should be indented and written in a smaller type size, and without opening or closing quotation marks. Any missing words or phrases will be marked with three ellipsis points in parentheses: […]. Citations of poetry should be inserted in the body of the text with lowered triangular quotation marks: «   ».


Italics and bold

Use of italics should be limited to foreign words which have not entered into ordinary use, dialect, brief citations in a foreign language, including Latin (e.g. stemma codicum, tout court, allegro con brio), and transliterations from Greek. Titles of books, chapters, articles in journals or miscellanies, poems, films, works of art and terms indicating parts of these works (e.g. Presentation, Preface, Appendix). Foreign words which have entered into ordinary use will instead be written in standard type: e.g. pasta.
Avoid using bold unless absolutely necessary.


Quotation marks and dashes

Please note the following standards for the use of quotation marks:

  • Lowered triangular quotation marks « » are used for definitions, citations of words or phrases, and for the titles of periodicals.
  • High double quotation marks “ ” are used only for a citation inside a major citation.
  • High single quotation marks ‘ ’ are used only when the author wishes to emphasize a term or denote a use of a term which is outside the ordinary.

Use the em-dash (–) for asides; the figure-dash (-) should be used, instead, to separate dates, indications of page numbers, etc. (e.g., 425-4 a.C.). Never use the quotation dash (horizontal bar) (—).


Footnote numbers

Always place footnote numbers inside the punctuation (e.g. …Dionysus1. instead of Dionysus.1) and outside the parentheses: e.g., … the healing god Asclepius (V. 115-24)1.


Geographic names

In the bibliographic citations, names of the place of publication are given in their original language. In the text, instead, use the current name of that place in the language you are writing in (e.g., for English, Rome, Lisbon, etc.).


Numbers and dates

Numbers are preferably written out, with the exception of statistics and quantitative information. References to page numbers should always be made in the shortest manner to the first and last page: 125-6 (not 125-126, nor 125-26).
In the dates, the day and the year are indicated using Arabic numbers, the month capitalized in English: 8 March 1942. For other chronological indications, see the following examples:
1990 (not ’90)
The 1700s or the 18th century
419-8 BCE
the 1990s (not the ’90s)


Bibliographic citations

Harvard style of referencing is the only style admitted, with author-surname and date and a bibliography at the end of the paper. The author’s surname should be written in small capitals. If two works by the same author published in the same year are referenced, after author-surname and date a letter of the alphabet in lower case and italics will be added (e.g. Wilson 2007b).

Monographs, curatorships, and critical editions

Indicate the name of the author in small capitals, with initials followed by a full stop, the title in italics, any volume numbers written in Roman numerals, place of publication and date (not divided by a comma).
E.g.: G. Paduano, Il giudice giudicato. Le funzioni del comico nelle Vespe di Aristofane, Bologna 1974.
For multiple authors, separate names with a comma; for more than three authors, indicate the surname of the first author followed by “et al.”.
For multiple initials in an author’s name, do not insert any spaces between each initial (e.g. M.L. West)

For curatorships, the same criterion will be followed. Insert “ed.” or “edd.” after the author’s or the authors’ surname.
The same criterion will be followed for conference proceedings, miscellany studies, honours, exhibition catalogues. In this latter case, after the title add “Exhibition catalogue”. For conference proceedings, after the title add “Conference proceedings”.
H.P. Foley, ed., Reflections on Women in Antiquity, London 1981.
P. Thiercy, M. Menu, edd., Aristophane: la langue, la scène, la cité, Actes du colloque de Toulouse, 17-19 mars 1994, Bari 1997.

The same criterion will be followed for critical editions of works by ancient authors.
E.g.: K.J. Dover, ed., Aristophanes. Clouds, Oxford 1968.

Articles in miscellanies

To reference articles in miscellanies, honours, anthologies, etc. authors should create a separate bibliographic item for the miscellany. In the item referencing the article, after providing the initials of the author, his/her surname, the title (in italics), add the word “in”, and indicate the surname of the curator of the miscellany (in small capitals), the date of publication of the miscellany, and number of pages. E.g.:
E.M. Craik, ed., ‘Owls to Athens’. Essays on Classical Subjects Presented to Sir Kenneth Dover, Oxford 1990.
N. Dunbar, The Ornithology of Aristophanes’ Bird-Wall. Birds 1136-1157, in Craik 1990, 61-68.

Articles in journals

Provide the author ant title as indicated above, the title of the journal in normal type inside lowered triangular quotation marks (without the word “in”), the volume number in Arabic numerals, any issue number in Arabic numerals separated by / (only in those cases where the page numbering begins again with each issue), year of publication, total pages. If the volumes are not numbered in a single series, indicate the series or new series (abbreviated, respectively, as s. or n. s.).
For Classical Studies journals, the abbreviations of the Année Philologique can be used.
E.g.: M.S. Mirto, Vittima sacrificale o «distruttrice di città»? La costruzione del personaggio nell’Ifigenia in Aulide, «Dioniso» n. s. 5, 2015, 51-72.

Dictionaries and encyclopaedias

Write “in” followed by the title and indicate volume number, year of publication and pages referred to. In the case of a dictionaries or encyclopaedias the place of publication can be omitted.
E.g.: F. Graf, Mysterien, in DNP, VIII, 2000, coll. 615-26.

Translations, subsequent editions, reprints

For translations, after the bibliographic information as above show the language translated into (e.g., eng. trans.) followed by the name of the translator and the place and year of translation.
The number of the edition is printed above the line (e.g., 20162). If the first publication date is important, indicate it in parentheses; for reprints give the year and date of publication in parentheses.


The series is indicated, only if considered indispensable, in parentheses after the date of publication, followed by the volume number from the series, written in Arabic numerals.

Online publishing

Indicate the URL inside triangular brackets <   > followed by the last date the page was consulted in parentheses.

Greek and Latin sources

Indicate ancient works with abbreviations of the author’s name (not in small capitals), the abbreviation of the title of the work (without any commas), the number of the verse, paragraph, or page in Arabic numerals. If necessary, indicate the number of the book in Roman numerals.
E.g.: Aesch. Th. 119-34; Verg. Aen. III 12-29
For citations of passages of an ancient work, follow the criteria indicated above for citations. The related bibliographic indications must be data must be indicated inside parentheses in the body of the text, before the citation.

For Greek authors and their works use the abbreviations from Liddel-Scott-Jones, except from the cases mentioned below:
Aesch., not A.
Aristoph., not Ar.
Demosth., not D.
Dio Cass., not D.C.
Dion. Hal., not D.H.
Eur., not E.
Plut., not Plu.
Polyb., not Plb.
Soph., not S.
Steph. Byz., not St.Byz
Xen., not X.

For Latin authors use the abbreviations from S. Hornblower, A. Spawforth, edd., The Oxford Dictionary, Oxford 20033.

For inscriptions follow the criteria from Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum (SEG); documents are to be cited as follows:
IG I3 5, l. 2
IG I3 5, ll. 3-5
Milet. I.3 129
Syll.3 589, ll. 1-3
CIL XI, 3036, l. 3

For papyri use the abbreviations from the Checklist of editions of greek, latin, demotic and coptic papyri, ostraca and tablets.

Submission Preparation Checklist

All submissions must meet the following requirements.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

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